Children should have regular eye examinations from around the age of three years old, or earlier if you think your child has a visual problem. It is recommended to have them tested before starting school and children do not need to know their letters as shapes and pictures can be used.
Poor vision can hinder a child’s development as up to 90 percent of what a child learns comes from what they see. Some signs and symptoms that may indicate your child has an eyesight problem are; regular headaches, screwing up eyes, blinking and rubbing eyes. Children can be fitted with CONTACT LENSES from around 12 years of age. Children’s sunglasses are available to protect from harmful UV radiation.
All children’s eye examinations are FREE under the NHS.
As the aging population increases, scientists expect the number of people with age-related eye problems to rise dramatically. You can’t prevent all age-related changes to your eyes, but you can take steps to protect your vision and reduce your risk of serious eye disease in the future. The single most important thing is to attend regular eye examinations so any problems can be detected early.
It is normally recommended to have an eye examination every 2 years (unless advised otherwise) up to the age of 70, and thereafter annually. Effective treatments are now available for many age related eye disorders.
The sun can be very damaging to the eyes, and it is important to always wear a good quality pair of sunglasses.
Sunglasses perform three functions:
1) Blocking Invisible UV Radiation
UV radiation is invisible but exposure is cumulative and may not show its effect for many years. Clouds reduce the amount of UV but do not block it completely, so you are still exposed on an overcast day. Long-term UV exposure to the eyes has been linked both to damage inside the eye e.g. cataracts and macular degeneration; but also to the external eye e.g. pingueculae, pterygia and photo-keratitis (snow blindness).
Consequently, those patients who have had cataract surgery; and those with macular degeneration are particularly recommended to protect their eyes from UV exposure.
For your protection only wear sunglasses displaying the CE kite mark and guaranteeing to absorb 100% UVA and UVB.
The amount of UV protection is UNRELATED to the colour or darkness of the lens. A UV blocking filter is actually a clear coloured coating on the lens.
Darker eye colours are naturally more protected to internal UV damage than paler eyes, this is because the darker pigment in our iris (eye colour) protects the eye by cutting out the light, in the same way that pigment in darker skins protects our skin burning so easily. However it is still important to protect the external eye and eyelids by wearing a good quality sunglass lens.
Don’t forget your children – They are more vulnerable to UV because of their larger pupils and clearer crystalline lens.
2) Reducing the intensity of Visible Light
The brightness of the sun is what causes us to squint our eyes to reduce the amount of visible light entering our eyes.
We reduce the amount, or brightness, of light by the depth and colour of the tint on our sunglasses. Tints are measured in the amount of light they allow to pass through the lens (Light Transmission Factor LTF). Most dark sunglasses tints will only allow 15% of all visible light to pass through; known as 15% LTF. This same depth of tint is available in all colours; grey, brown, green etc.
3) Protection from Environment; wind, snow, water, flying objects
Sunglasses offer the ultimate protection from flying objects when cycling or running, spray from watersports, snow whilst skiing, and wind during all outdoor pursuits.
WRAP frames are curved to bow around the face and reduce light and the elements entering the eyes from the sides. They are often used in sports sunglasses designs.
Going skiing – taking care of eyes in snow
The reflective properties of snow mean that the ultraviolet (UV) rays can be up to eight times more powerful on the ski slopes than anywhere else.
This is why skiers and those taking part in other winter sports should take particular care in protecting their eyes by wearing 100% UVA and UVB absorbing lenses.
Snow can reflect up to 80% of light compared to normal ground surfaces, and UV exposure to unprotected eyes can cause photo-keratitis (snow blindness).
Typical snow blindness symptoms may include increased tearing or watering of the eyes, bloodshot eyes, uncontrollable eyelid twitching, and eye pain. You may also have a feeling of sand or grit in the eyes. If you encounter any of these problems you should see medical advice. Symptoms often subside after a few days.
Bright light can be scattered in all directions from the surfaces it strikes, which then creates an annoying intensity of light we experience as glare.
Polarized lenses contain a special filter that blocks this type of intense reflected light, cutting out all glare from horizontal surfaces for example roads and water, to improve visual comfort and clarity.
There are a few instances when polarized lenses may reduce the visibility of images produced by liquid crystal displays (LCDs) or the dashboard instrument panel displays of some cars, boats or aircraft. With polarized lenses, you also may be unable to see your mobile phone or GPS device clearly.
However, for most sports and outdoor activities, polarized sunglasses offer great advantages. They are especially effective against glare for driving and water sports.
Pupillary Distance (PD) Measurement
Pupillary Distance is the distance between your two pupils measured in millimetres. It is used when dispensing glasses to ensure the optical centres of the two lenses are centred correctly in line with your pupils, so that you are looking through the clearest part of the lens to get the sharpest vision.
To measure PD you need a helper and a millimetre ruler;
1. Sit facing your helper so your eyes are both on the same level.
2. The helper holds the ruler in his RIGHT hand and closes his RIGHT eye.
3. The helper then asks you to look straight at his open LEFT eye, and he lines the zero mark of the ruler up with the outside edge of your right iris resting the ruler and his hand against your forehead.
4. Keeping the ruler steady; the helper then closes his LEFT eye (and opens the right eye), and asks you to look straight at his open RIGHT eye. He reads off the marking on the ruler level with the inner edge of your iris. This is your PD measurement.
A normal PD measurement will be:
Small Adult 58-62 mm
Medium Adult 62-66 mm
Large Adult 66-70 mm
If you have a squint, lazy eye or have a high prescription (over +/- 10.00), then it is advised to have your PD measured by a trained practitioner.
If you are registered blind or partially sighted or are aged under 16 then the law states that your glasses must be dispensed by a qualified dispensing optician or optometrist. We cannot supply prescription glasses online in these cases.
Frame Size Guide
Frames are measured in their eye size and bridge size. They will have a measurement something like 54/16 which is often printed on the inside of the frame side.
The 54 refers to the eye size, which is the width of ONE lens. The 16 refers to the width of the bridge. So the total width of the frame will be twice the eye size plus the bridge size. In this example 124 mm (54+54+16).
Average frame sizes are;
Kids e.g. 46/15; total frame width less than 110mm
Petite Adult e.g. 49/15; total frame width 110-120mm
Medium e.g. 54/16; total frame width 120-130mm
Large e.g. 58/18; total frame width over 130mm
The larger size head you have the larger frame width size you will need to prevent the frame being too tight across the temples.